WTF, Evolution?!

Sources and Further Reading

    • General Evolutionary History and Theory

      • Bush, Guy L. "Speciation: The Origins of Diversity." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Evolution. Ed. Michael Hutchins. Detroit: Gale, 2011. 73-88.
      • Crespi, Bernard J. "The evolution of maladaptation." Heredity 84.6 (2000): 623-629.
      • Darwin, Charles. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. New York: Heritage Press, 1963.
      • Donoghue, Philip CJ, and Jonathan B. Antcliffe. "Early life: origins of multicellularity." Nature 466.7302 (2010): 41-42.
      • Freeman, Scott. Biological Science. 3rd ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008.
      • Gould, Stephen Jay, and Richard C. Lewontin. "The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 205.1161 (1979): 581-598.
  • Chapter 1: Awkward Solutions

    • Dalmatian Pelican

    • Peacock Flounder

    • Giant Three-Horned Chameleon

      • Abate, Ardith L. "Chameleons (Chamaeleonidae)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 7: Reptiles. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 223-242.
      • Bauer, Aaron M., Arnold G. Kluge, and Gordon Schuett. "Lizards." The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. Ed. Tim Halliday and Kraig Adler. Oxford University Press, 2002.
    • Giraffe

    • Stalk-Eyed Fly

      • Merrit, Richard W., Gregory W. Courtney, and Joe B. Keiper. "Diptera." Encyclopedia of Insects. Ed. Vincent H. Resh and Ring T. Cardé. 2nd ed. Academic Press, 2009.
      • Swallow, J. G., G. S. Wilkinson, and J. H. Marden. "Aerial performance of stalk-eyed flies that differ in eye span." Journal of Comparative Physiology B170.7 (2000): 481-487.
    • Magnificent Frigatebird

      • Freedman, Bill. "Frigatebirds (Fregatidae)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 8: Birds I. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 193-199.
      • Gibbs, H. Lisle, and James P. Gibbs. "Prey robbery by nonbreeding Magnificent Frigatebirds (Fregata magnificens)." The Wilson Bulletin 99.1 (1987): 101-104.
      • Nelson, J. Bryan, A. W. Diamond, and A. W. Diamond. "Frigatebirds." The New Encyclopedia of Birds. Ed. Christopher Perrins. Oxford University Press, 2003.
    • Galápagos Marine Iguana

    • Plains Zebra

    • Sharp-Ribbed Newt

    • Marabou Stork

    • Great Blue-Spotted Mudskipper

      • Banister, Keith E., and John Dawes. "Tarpons, Bonefishes, and Eels." The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life. Ed. Andrew Campbell and John Dawes. Oxford University Press, 2005.
      • Graham, Jeffrey B., ed. Air-breathing Fishes: Evolution, Diversity, and Adaptation. San Diego: Academic Press, 1997.
      • Harrison, Ian J., and Frank Pezold. "Gobioidei (Gobies)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 5: Fishes II. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 373-389.
      • Takegaki, Takeshi. "Threatened fishes of the world: Boleophthalmus pectinirostris (Linnaeus 1758) (Gobiidae)." Environmental Biology of Fishes 81.4 (2008): 373-374.
    • Giraffe-Necked Weevil

    • Sarcastic Fringehead

    • Kayan Slow Loris

      • Martin, Robert D. "Lorises and Pottos (Lorisidae)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 14: Mammals III. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 13-22.
      • Munds, Rachel A., K. A. I. Nekaris, and Susan M. Ford. "Taxonomy of the Bornean slow loris, with new species Nycticebus kayan (Primates, Lorisidae)." American Journal of Primatology 75.1 (2013): 46-56.
      • Nekaris, K. Anne-Isola, et al. "Mad, bad and dangerous to know: the biochemistry, ecology and evolution of slow loris venom." Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases 19 (2013): 21.
    • Plants: New Frontiers in Awkwardness

      • Freeman, Scott. "Green Plants." Biological Science. 3rd ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008. 626-663.
  • Chapter 2: Half-Assed Attempts

    • Surinam Horned Frog

      • Duellman, William E., and Miguel Lizana. "Biology of a sit-and-wait predator, the leptodactylid frog Ceratophrys cornuta." Herpetologica (1994): 51-64.
    • Ocean Sunfish

      • Donaldson, Terry J. "Tetraodontiformes (Pufferfishes, Triggerfishes, and Relatives)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 5: Fishes II. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 467-485.
      • Pope, Edward C., et al. "The biology and ecology of the ocean sunfish Mola mola: a review of current knowledge and future research perspectives." Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 20.4 (2010): 471-487.
    • Atlantic Sand Fiddler

    • Ribbon Eel

      • Randall, John Ernest, Gerald R. Allen, and Roger C. Steene. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, 1997.
      • Romero, Aldemaro. "Anguilliformes (Eels and Morays)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 4: Fishes I. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 255-270.
    • Asian Giant Softshell Turtle

      • Das, Indraneil. "Pelochelys cantorii Gray 1864 – Asian giant softshell turtle." Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5. Ed. A.G.J. Rhodin, et al. Chelonian Reearch Foundation, 2008. 011.1-011.6.
    • Dumbo Octopus

      • Villanueva, Roger, et al. "Systematics, distribution and biology of the cirrate octopods of the genus Opisthoteuthis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Atlantic Ocean, with description of two new species." Bulletin of Marine Science 71.2 (2002): 933-985.
    • Painted Frogfish

    • Secretary Bird

      • Kemp, Alan and Ian Newton. "Secretarybird." The New Encyclopedia of Birds. Ed. Christopher Perrins. Oxford University Press, 2003
      • Kemp, Alan Charles. "Secretary Birds (Sagittariidae)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 8: Birds I. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 343-345.
    • Boxer Crab

    • Pignose Frog

      • Biju, S. D., and Franky Bossuyt. "New frog family from India reveals an ancient biogeographical link with the Seychelles." Nature 425.6959 (2003): 711-714.
      • Zachariah, Anil, et al. "A detailed account of the reproductive strategy and developmental stages of Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis (Anura: Nasikabatrachidae), the only extant member of an archaic frog lineage." Zootaxa 3510 (2012): 53-64.
    • Irrawaddy Dolphin

      • Jefferson, Thomas A., Marc A. Webber, and Robert L. Pitman. Marine Mammals of the World: A Comprehensive Guide to Their Identification. London: Academic Press, 2008.
    • Sea Potato

    • Evolution’s Outtakes: So Half-Assed, They’re All Dead Now

      • Benton, Michael J. When Life Nearly Died: The Greatest Mass Extinction of All Time. London: Thames & Hudson, 2003.
      • Clark, James M., Teresa Maryanska, and Rinchen Barsbold. "Therizinosauroidea." The Dinosauria. Ed. David B. Weishampel, Peter Dodson, and Halszka Osmólska. 2nd Ed. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.
      • Coates, M. I., et al. "Spines and tissues of ancient sharks." Nature 396.6713 (1998): 729-730.
      • Freeman, Scott. "Phylogenies and the History of Life." Biological Science. 3rd ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008. 543-565.
      • Janis, Christine M., and Richard Barnes. "Elephants and Relatives." The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Ed. David W. Macdonald. Oxford University Press, 2006.
      • Lambert, W. David. "The feeding habits of the shovel-tusked gomphotheres: evidence from tusk wear patterns." Paleobiology 18.2 (1992): 132-147.
      • Rinderknecht, Andrés, and R. Ernesto Blanco. "The largest fossil rodent." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 275.1637 (2008): 923-928.
  • Chapter 3: Dark Times

    • Whitemargin Stargazer

      • Banister, Keith E., and Svein A. Fosså. "Perchlike Fishes." The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life. Ed. Andrew Campbell and John Dawes. Oxford University Press, 2005.
      • Mooi, Randall D., and G. David Johnson. "Trachinoidei (Weeverfishes and Relatives)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 5: Fishes II. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 331-340. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 27 Jan. 2014.
    • Regal Horned Lizard

    • Praying Mantis

      • Lawrence, S. E. "Sexual cannibalism in the praying mantid, Mantis religiosa: a field study." Animal Behaviour 43.4 (1992): 569-583.
      • Preston-Mafham, Ken, and Stephen Simpson. "Mantids." The New Encyclopedia of Insects and their Allies. Ed. Christopher O’Toole. Oxford University Press, 2002.
      • Preston-Mafham, Rod and Ken Preston-Mafham. The Encyclopedia of Land Invertebrate Behaviour. London: Blandford Press, 1993.
    • Bald Uakari

    • Pacific Hatchetfish

      • Denton, E. J., J. B. Gilpin-Brown, and P. G. Wright. "The angular distribution of the light produced by some mesopelagic fish in relation to their camouflage." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences 182.1067 (1972): 145-158.
    • King Vulture

      • Baker, Aaron J., David F. Whitacre, and Oscar Aguirre. "Observations of king vultures (Sarcoramphus papa) drinking and bathing." Journal of Raptor Research 30.4 (1996): 246-247.
      • Houston, David C. "Competition for food between Neotropical vultures in forest." Ibis 130.3 (1988): 402-417.
      • Kemp, Alan, and Ian Newton. "New World Vultures." The New Encyclopedia of Birds. Ed. Christopher Perrins. Oxford University Press, 2003.
    • Visayan Warty Pig

    • Smalltooth Sawfish

    • Shoebill

    • Gum Leaf Skeletonizer Caterpillar

      • Berndt, Lisa A., and Geoff R. Allen. "Biology and pest status of Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae) in Australia and New Zealand." Australian Journal of Entomology 49.3 (2010): 268-277.
    • Reef Stonefish

      • Smith, William Leo. "Scorpaeniformes II (Scorpionfishes and Relatives)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 5: Fishes II. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 163-178.
    • Gunnison Sage Grouse

      • Garson, Peter Jeffery. "Fowls and Pheasants (Phasianidae)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 8: Birds I. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 433-453.
      • Young, Jessica R., et al. "A new species of sage-grouse (Phasianidae: Centrocercus) from southwestern Colorado." The Wilson Bulletin 112.4 (2000): 445-453.
      • Young, Jessica R., et al. "Phenotypic divergence of secondary sexual traits among sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, populations." Animal Behaviour 47.6 (1994): 1353-1362.
    • Tongue-Eating Isopod

      • Springer, Joseph and Dennis Holley. "Ecology of Animals: Populations and Communities." An Introduction to Zoology. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2012. 18-40.
    • Sand Cat

      • Sliwa, Alexander. "Felis margarita, Sand Cat." Mammals of Africa. Ed. Kingdon, Jonathan, and Michael Hoffman. Vol. V: Carnivores, Pangolins, Equids and Rhinoceroses. London: A&C Black, 2013. 199-201
    • Dispatch from a Disaster: The Permian Extinction

      • Benton, Michael J. When Life Nearly Died: The Greatest Mass Extinction of All Time. London: Thames & Hudson, 2003.
      • Freeman, Scott. "Phylogenies and the History of Life." Biological Science. 3rd ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2008. 543-565.
  • Chapter 4: Dirty Jokes

    • Proboscis Monkey

    • Temminck’s Tragopan

      • BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Tragopan temminckii. Downloaded from birdlife.org.
      • Islam, K., and J. A. Crawford. "Comparative displays among four species of tragopans and their derivation and function." Ethology Ecology & Evolution 10.1 (1998): 17-32.
    • Surinam Toad

      • Trueb, Linda. "Clawed Frogs and Surinam Toads (Pipidae)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 6: Amphibians. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 99-107.
    • Leopard Sea Cucumber

    • Indian Balloon Frog

      • Daniel, J. C. The book of Indian reptiles and amphibians. Bombay Natural History Society, 2002.
    • Leopard Slug

      • Mordan, Peter B., and Kevin F. Fitzgerald. "Pulmonata (Lung-Bearing Snails and Slugs)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 2: Protostomes. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 411-422.
      • Preston-Mafham, Rod and Ken Preston-Mafham. The Encyclopedia of Land Invertebrate Behaviour. London: Blandford Press, 1993.
    • Eiselt’s Caecilian

      • Hoogmoed, Marinus Steven, Adriano Oliveira Maciel, and Juliano Tupan Coragem. "Discovery of the largest lungless tetrapod, Atretochoana eiselti (Taylor, 1968) (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Typhlonectidae), in its natural habitat in Brazilian Amazonia." Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi Ciências Naturais 6.3 (2011): 241-262.
    • Yellow-Footed Antechinus

    • Pigbutt Worm

    • Vervet Monkey

      • Gerald, Melissa S., et al. "Do females pay attention to secondary sexual coloration in vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)?" Naturwissenschaften 97.1 (2010): 89-96.
    • Western Gray Kangaroo

    • Pacific Geoduck

    • Okapi

      • Bodmer, Richard E., and George B. Rabb. "Okapia johnstoni." Mammalian Species 422 (1992): 1-8.
      • du Toit, Johan, and Robin A. Pellew. "Giraffes and Okapi." The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Ed. David W. Macdonald. Oxford University Press, 2006.
      • Lindsey, Susan Lyndaker, and Cynthia L. Bennett. The okapi: mysterious animal of Congo-Zaire. University of Texas Press, 1999.
    • Mallard

    • Pacific Hagfish

      • Sower, Stacia A., Mickie L. Powell, and Scott I. Kavanaugh. "Myxiniformes (Hagfishes)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 4: Fishes I. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 77-81.
      • Banister, Keith E., and John Dawes. "Lampreys and Hagfishes." The Encyclopedia of Underwater Life. Ed. Andrew Campbell and John Dawes. Oxford University Press, 2005.
    • Acorn Barnacle

      • Hoch, J. Matthew. "Effects of crowding and wave exposure on penis morphology of the acorn barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides." Marine Biology 157 (2010): 2783–2789
      • Neufeld, Christopher and A Richard Palmer. "Precisely proportioned: intertidal barnacles alter penis form to suit coastal wave action." Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275 (2008): 1081–1087.
      • Steiner, Tatiana Menchini. "Thecostraca (Cirripedes and Relatives)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 2: Protostomes. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 273-281.
    • Birds-of-Paradise: Evolution Gets Some Tail

  • Chapter 5: Questionable Design

    • Horned Guan

      • González-García, Fernando. "Behavior of horned guans in Chiapas, Mexico." The Wilson Bulletin (1994): 357-365.
    • Babirusa

    • Flannel Moth Caterpillar

      • Bishopp, F.C. The puss caterpillar and the effects of its sting on man. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1923.
      • Capinera, John L., ed. Encyclopedia of entomology. Vol. 4. Springer, 2008.
      • Epstein, Marc E. Revision and phylogeny of the limacodid-group families, with evolutionary studies on slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea). Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996.
    • Gerenuk

      • Atkins, William Arthur. "Bovids III: Gazelles, Springboks, and Saiga Antelopes (Antilopinae)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 16: Mammals V. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 45-58.
      • Roberts, Craig, Peter Brotherton, Anna A. Luschekina, Marina V. Kholodova, and Eleanor J. Milner-Gulland. "Gazelles, Dwarf Antelopes, and Saigas." The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Ed. David W. Macdonald. Oxford University Press, 2006.
    • Yeti Crab

      • Goffredi, Shana K. "Indigenous ectosymbiotic bacteria associated with diverse hydrothermal vent invertebrates." Environmental microbiology reports 2.4 (2010): 479-488.
      • Macpherson, Enrique, William Jones, and Michel Segonzac. "A new squat lobster family of Galatheoidea (Crustacea, Decapoda: Anomura) from the hydrothermal vents of the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge." Zoosystema 27 (2005): 709-723.
      • Poore, Gary CB, Shane T. Ahyong, and Joanne Taylor, eds. The Biology of Squat Lobsters. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2011.
      • Roterman, C. N., et al. "The biogeography of the yeti crabs (Kiwaidae) with notes on the phylogeny of the Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura)." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280.1764 (2013).
    • Shingleback Skink

      • Pianka, Eric R. "Skinks (Scincidae)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 7: Reptiles. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 327-338.
    • Bearded Pig

    • Cordyceps Fungus

      • Evans, H. C. "Entomogenous fungi in tropical forest ecosystems: an appraisal." Ecological Entomology 7.1 (1982): 47-60.
      • Hughes, David. "Pathways to understanding the extended phenotype of parasites in their hosts." The Journal of experimental biology 216.1 (2013): 142-147.
      • Mains, E. B. "North American entomogenous species of Cordyceps." Mycologia 50.2 (1958): 169-222.
      • Roy, Helen E., et al. "Bizarre interactions and endgames: entomopathogenic fungi and their arthropod hosts." Annual Review of Entomology 51 (2006): 331-357.
    • Atlantic Wolffish

    • Emei Mustache Toad

      • Zheng, Yuchi, et al. "Reproductive behaviour and underwater calls in the Emei Moustache Toad, Leptobrachium boringii." Asian Herpetological Research 2.4 (2011): 199-215.
    • Springbok

    • Planthopper Nymph

      • Hamilton, KG Andrew. "Making sense of Fulgoroidea (Hemiptera): new phylogenetic evidence." Cicadina 12.1-2 (2013): 57-80.
      • von Ellenrieder, Natalia. "Strepsiptera (Strepsipterans)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 3: Insects. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 335-339.
    • Tasselled Wobbegong

    • Ping-Pong Tree Sponge

      • Vacelet, Jean. "New carnivorous sponges (Porifera, Poecilosclerida) collected from manned submersibles in the deep Pacific." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 148.4 (2006): 553-584.
    • Long-Horned Orb Weaver

      • Molur, Sanjay, B. A. Daniel, and Manju Siliwal. "First Record of Macracantha Arcuata Fabricius, 1793 (Araneae: Araneidae) From Assam, India." Zoos' Print Journal 19.11: 1696 (2004).
      • Hillyard, Paul D. The private life of spiders. New Holland Publishers, 2007.
    • Duck-Billed Platypus

      • Serena, Melody. "Duck-Billed Platypus (Ornithorhynchidae)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 12: Mammals I. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 243-248.
    • Evolution’s Devious Tricks: Camouflage and Mimicry

  • Chapter 7: The Nose Sessions

    • Striped Leaf-Nosed Bat

    • Star-Nosed Mole

    • Southern Elephant Seal

      • Berta, Annalisa and James L. Sumich. Marine mammals: Evolutionary biology. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 1999.
      • Sazima, Ivan, and Cristina Sazima. "Cleaner birds: an overview for the Neotropics." Biota Neotropica 10.4 (2010): 195-203.
      • Wilson, Nixon. "Mesostigmata: Rhinonyssidae, Halarachnidae (nasal mites); Metastigmata: Ixodidae (ticks)." Antarctic Research Series. Ed. J. Linsley Gressitt. Vol. 10: Entomology of Antarctica. Baltimore: The Horn-Shafer Company, 1967. 41-49.
    • Lowland Tapir

      • IUCN Species Survival Commission Tapir Specialist Group, 2011. "The World's Tapirs--The Lowland Tapir (Tapirus terrestris)."
      • Lilia, K., et al. "Gross anatomy and ultrasonographic images of the reproductive system of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus)." Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia 39.6 (2010): 569-575.
    • Lantern Bug

      • Kershaw, J. C. W., and G. W. Kirkaldy. "A Memoir on the Anatomy and Life-History of the Homopterous Insect Pyrops candelaria (or ‘Candlefly’)." Zoologische Jahrbücher: Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 29.2 (1910): 105-124.
      • Mann, Darren. "Bugs." The New Encyclopedia of Insects and their Allies. Ed. Christopher O’Toole. Oxford University Press, 2002.
    • Galápagos Batfish

    • Pinocchio Frog

    • Rhinoceros Chameleon

      • Bauer, Aaron M., Arnold G. Kluge, and Gordon Schuett. "Lizards." The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. Ed. Tim Halliday and Kraig Adler. Oxford University Press, 2002.
      • Henkel, Friedrich-Wilhelm, and Wolfgang Schmidt. Amphibians and reptiles of Madagascar and the Mascarene, Seychelles, and Comoro Islands. Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company, 2000.
    • Saiga Antelope

      • Atkins, William Arthur. "Bovids III: Gazelles, Springboks, and Saiga Antelopes (Antilopinae)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 16: Mammals V. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 45-58.
    • Northern Leafnose Snake

      • Krysko, Kenneth L. "Feeding behaviour of the Madagascar leaf‐nosed snake, Langaha madagascariensis (Serpentes: Colubridae: Pseudoxyrhophiinae), with an alternative hypothesis for its bizarre head structure." African Journal of Herpetology 54.2 (2005): 195-200.
      • Tingle, Jessica L. "Field observations on the behavioral ecology of the Madagascan Leaf-Nosed Snake, Langaha madagascariensis." Herpetological Conservation and Biology 7.3 (2012): 442-448.
    • Tube-Nosed Fruit Bat

      • Conservation International, April 12, 2012. "20 Years, 20 'Rap Stars', and 'Still Counting…'"
      • Owl, Marcus Young. "Old World Fruit Bats II (All Other Genera)." Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. Ed. Michael Hutchins, et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 13: Mammals II. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 333-350.
    • Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey

    • Special Advertising Section: Ambergris by Evolution

    • Evolution: The Final Interview

      • Ackerman, Jennifer. "The Downside of Upright." National Geographic 210.1 (2006): 126-145.
      • Wittman, Anna Blackburn, and L. Lewis Wall. "The evolutionary origins of obstructed labor: bipedalism, encephalization, and the human obstetric dilemma." Obstetrical & gynecological survey 62.11 (2007): 739-748.